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HOW TO VOTE in Poland

The European elections in Poland will most likely be held on 26 May 2019. Anyone aged 18 or over can cast a vote. It’s also possible to vote abroad if certain conditions are met.

The European elections shall be ordered by the President no later than 90 days before the day of these elections and he shall order such elections to be held on a non-working day. That would be 26 May in the case of the 2019 elections, the only Sunday between 23 and 26 May, which is the period chosen by the European Parliament and the Member States for the European elections to be held in 2019.

Voters in Poland have to vote in a specific polling station based on their home address. The mayor must notify voters, no later than 30th day prior to election day, about the number and the location of the polling stations.

In principle voters are automatically entered onto the permanent register of voters where they live. Based on the register of voters, an electoral roll is created, i.e. a list of people who have the right to vote in a given polling station. Voters may vote at a polling station where they live or at another one, provided that they submit a request in writing for entry onto the roll of voters. The written request have to be made to the office of the municipality no later than five days prior to the election.

To find out your nearest polling booth, check put this website: Poland’s National Electoral Commission.



In Poland you have to be at least 18 to vote in the European elections.

Voters will elect 52 Parliament members in 2019, one more than in the 2014 elections.

You don’t need to register in advance, as this is done automatically by the authorities. However, if you have changed your home address recently, we advise you to check with given office of the municipality whether your registration on the register of voters is correct.

If you intend to vote in the polling station where you live, you do not have to register to vote.

If you want to vote somewhere else, you must be registered in the register of voters at the given office of municipality. The regulations do not indicate the date by which the request for entry in the register of voters must be submitted. However, you have to take into account that the mayor has three days to process the application.

Members of the electoral commission are required to check your identity, hence you have to bring your ID card or passport with you.

Only voters who have a certificate of disability, attesting to a significant or moderate level of disability, are entitled to vote by post (and only then in the case of electoral wards in Poland).

The intention to vote by mail a disabled voter reports to the electoral commissioner by the 15th day before the election day. The notification may be made orally, in writing, by telegraph, fax or electronically. The notification should contain:

  • surname and name (s)
  • father's name
  • date of birth
  • social security registration number (PESEL)
  • declaration on entering this voter onto the register of voters in a given commune
  • denotation of the elections
  • delivery address of the election package.

The notification should be accompanied by a copy of the current disability certificate. In the notification, a disabled voter may request to add to the electoral package a Braille overlay for a voting card.

The disabled voter who submitted the intention to vote by mail will receive an electoral package, not later than seven days before election day. After filling in the voting card, the voter puts it in the voting envelope, seals it and then puts the envelope in the return envelope. The voter should also attach a signed statement about the personal and secret vote received in the electoral package. The voter sends the complete electoral package to the appropriate polling station.

Useful links: Poland’s National Electoral Commission

Poland’s Electoral Code

Only voters who have a certificate of disability, attesting to a significant or moderate level of disability, are entitled to vote by post or by proxy (and only then in the case of electoral wards in Poland). In addition, people aged 75 or over on election day may also vote by proxy.

A proxy may only be a person registered in the same register of voters, or having the certified right to vote in the same municipality, as the voter granting power of attorney to vote. The power of attorney to vote shall be granted before the mayor or another employee authorised by the municipal mayor.

The act of power of attorney to vote shall be made at the request of the voter, brought before the mayor of the municipality in which the voter is registered, not later than 9th day before election day. The application should include:

  • surname and name (s)
  • father's name
  • date of birth
  • social security registration number (PESEL)
  • address of both the voter and the person to be granted power of attorney to vote
  • clear denotation of the election for which the proxy to vote is being provided.

Useful links: Poland’s National Electoral Commission

Poland’s Electoral Code (Kodeks Wyborczy)

Every EU citizen who fulfils certain conditions has the right to vote in European Parliament elections in all European Union countries. In Poland, citizens of the European Union who are not Polish citizens permanently residing in the area of the commune are entered onto the register of voters, part B.

Citizens of the European Union who are not Polish citizens must be registered in the register of voters at the given office of municipality. The regulations do not indicate the date by which the request for entry in the register of voters must be submitted. However, you have to take into account that the mayor has three days to process the application.

Based on the register of voters, an electoral roll is created. Citizens of the European Union who are not Polish citizens (the same as Polish citizens) may vote at a chosen polling station provided that they submit a request in writing for entry onto the electoral roll. The written request have to be made to the office of the municipality no later than five days prior to the election.

In Poland there are 13 constituencies, which means that voters in each of these constituencies choose among different candidates, even if they are still put forward by the same national political parties. The constituencies are the following:

  • 1: Pomeranian Voivodeship
  • 2: Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
  • 3: Podlaskie Voivodeship and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
  • 4: the part of Masovian Voivodeship (it includes Warsaw and 8 powiats: Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Legionowo, Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki, Otwock, Piaseczno, Pruszków, Warsaw West, Wołomin)
  • 5: the part of Masovian Voivodeship (it includes of all those powiats of the Masovian Voivodeship which are not in the No. 4 Constituency)
  • 6: Łódź Voivodeship
  • 7: Greater Poland Voivodeship
  • 8: Lublin Voivodeship
  • 9: Podkarpackie Voivodeship
  • 10: Lesser Poland Voivodeship and Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship
  • 11: Silesian Voivodeship
  • 12: Lower Silesian Voivodeship and Opole Voivodeship
  • 13: Lubusz Voivodeship and West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Political parties have to clear at least 5% of the votes in order to be elected to the Parliament.

Under EU law, all countries must use voting systems that ensure proportional representation, which means that the number of elected members from each party depends on the share of electoral votes obtained by the party.

Poland uses preferential voting, which gives the voters the option to indicate their preferences within the party list they choose. Candidates who receive the most preferences are more likely to be elected.

The specificity of these elections is that the number of seats in individual constituency are not fixed in advance. The turnout implies on the distribution of seats in constituencies. It may happen that no mandate will be granted in a given constituency due to the low turnout.

A candidate shall be at least 21 years old. Only election committees of political parties, committees of coalitions of political parties or committees of voters are entitled to submit candidates.

First, such an election committee shall notify the National Electoral Commission of its establishment in the period commencing from the day of calling of the elections not later than 50 days before the election day.

A list of candidates in a given constituency shall be submitted to the appropriate constituency election commission not later than 40 days before the election day. Each list of candidates should be supported by the signatures of at least 10,000 voters permanently residing in the given polling station.

You should be able to find complete lists of all candidates on the following website once the registration period has ended: Poland’s National Electoral Commission


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